The European Union plus Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway are the so-called Dublin-Länder (Dublin countries. These countries have decided that the first country to register a refugee has to carry out the asylum process for that person. The countries call this rule the Dublin III directive. You are not free to choose the country in which you want to have your asylum process carried out.
You have to do your asylum process in another EU country if it can be proved that you were in this other country. This can be proved if you have a Visum for this country, if you have made an asylum application there or if your fingerprints were taken there. The BAMF can also prove that you were in another country if you have, for example, train tickets or photos from another country.
How the Dublin procedure works
The Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (BAMF) wants to find out if another country is responsible for your asylum process. It will take your fingerprints and search for them in the european database. In addition, the BAMF will also ask you about your travel route. This is known as the travel route interview. Sometimes the BAMF will send you a letter for a written travel route interview. You can also say why you do not want to return to the other country. And you can tell about anything that happened to you there. The asylum process will be done in Germany if the BAMF cannot find any proof that you were in another country. You are not allowed to lie in the travel route interview. If you cannot remember something exactly, then you should say so.
Family reunion (Sections 8-12 Dublin III directive)
People with a residency permit in another EU country
If you have refugee status (Anerkennung als Flüchtling) or subsidiären Schutz in another european country, then the most you can get in the asylum procedur ein Germany is a deportation ban (Nationales Abschiebungsverbot). The Dublin III directive also does not apply to you. You can stay in Germany for 90 days. If you do not leave Germany after 90 days and have not been given a deportation ban, Germany can deport you to the other european country.
Rejection of the asylum application
If the BAMF finds proof that you were in another european country (train tickets, fingerprints, asylum application, visa or something similar), the asylum application will be rejected as inadmissibile (unzulässig). The rejection of your asylum application will be sent to you in a letter in a big yellow envelope. There is a date on the envelope.
You can appeal against the rejection within one week. The appeal, together with an emergency appeal to prevent the deportation being carried out before the actual appeal has been decided, has to be lodged at the administrative court. If you are too late doing this, then you have no chance afterwards.
In the Dublin process, there are various deadlines. If Germany knows that another country is responsible for your asylum process, it only has limited time to contact the other country. Then, the other country has to respond with a certain deadline. After these two deadlines, Germany has six months time to deport you. If you have not been deported after six months, Germany becomes responsible for your asylum process.
You are not automatically entitled to stay in Germany after six months, first, you have to write a letter to the BAMF.
Pro Asyl has a good brochure saying what you can do (unfortunately, it's only in German). You can also find information on the website w2eu. This information is in arabic, english, farsi and french.
If you appeal and your appeal is rejected, it takes another six months before the deadline passes. Go to an advice office.
If you go into hiding, the deadline is extended to 18 months. Going into hiding means, for example, not being at home at the time of a deportation which was announced in advance. Ask an advice office.